Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah was a termed used by the early Muslims (Salafus Saleh) to distinguish themselves, from Ahlul Bidah (Mutazilah), in matters of Aqida. Aqida was transmitted from the Salafus Saleh by two Imams, Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Ahmad.

Imam Tahawi later codified the Aqida of Imam Abu Hanifa, and describe his text on Aqida as representing the Aqidah of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah.

Imam Tahawi said, “..the following is an exposition of the creed of the People of the Prophetic Way and Majority of scholars (Ahl al Sunnah wa al jama’ah) in accordance with the understanding of Muslim jurists such as Imam Abu Hanifa al Nu’man bin Thabit al Kufi, Abu Yusuf Yaqub bin Ibrahim al Ansari, and Abu Abd Allah Muhammad b. Al Hasan Al Shaybani. It includes their beliefs about the foundations of the religion upon which they base their worship of their Lord of the worlds. (Aqida Tahawi)

The Ashari Aqida is contained in Aqida Tahawi

Imam al Subki (d771), the great Shafi scholar, noted that the Hanafis, Shafis, Malikis and Hanbalis are one in creed, he said,

“All of them follow the opinion of the Prophetic Way and the Majority of the scholars (Ahl al Sunnah wa al jama’ah). They worship Allah in accordance with the creed of Abu al Hasan al Ashari. None of them deviates from it, save the riffraffs among the Hanafis and Shafis who adopted the rationalist creed and those among the Hanbalis who opted for anthropomorphism. However, Allah protected the Malikis from such things, for we have never seen a Maliki except that he was Ashari in creed. In summation, the creed of Al Ashari is what is contained in the Creed of Imam Abu Jafar al Tahawi, which the scholars of the various legal scholars have endorsed and are content with as a creed…. So say to those fanatics among the sects, “Take heed, leave your fanaticism, abandon your heresies, and defend the religion of Islam.”


The Asharis and Maturidis are upon the creed of Imam Abu Hanifa as expressed by Imam Tahawi, in Aqida Tahawi, the Aqida of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah.

This Aqida of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah is quite different from the Mutazilah, Jahmiyyah and the anthropormorphist (mushabbihah).

Imam Tahawi says, “We pray to Allah that He may confirm us in faith, let us die upon it, save us from the erroneous ideas and heretical doctrines such as those advanced by the anthropormorphist (mushabbihah), the Mutazilah, Jahmiyyah, determinists (jabariyyah), free willers (Qadariyyah), and others who have differed from Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah and fallen into error.” (Aqida Tahawi)

And Allah knows best.

Dealing with the unclear verses and hadiths pertaining to Allah’s Attributes

Imam Nawawi said, “Scholars disagree about the Quran verses and hadiths that deal with the Attributes of Allah, [such as Allah’s ‘hand’ (Quran 48:10), His ‘eyes’ (52:48), or His ‘nearness’ (50:16)] as to whether they should be discussed in terms of a particular figurative interpretation (tawil) or not.
Some say that they should be figuratively interpreted as befits them (ie interpreting His hand for example, as an allusion to His omnipotence). And this is more well known of the two positions of the scholastic theologians.

Others say that such verses should not be given a definitive interpretation, but rather their meaning should not be discussed, and the knowledge of them should be cosigned to Allah Most (tafwid), while at the same time believing in the transcendence of Allah Most High, and that the characteristics of created things do not apply to Him (Allah). For example, it should be said we believe that

“the All Merciful is ‘established’ (Arabic: istawa) on the Throne.” (Quran 20:5)

But we do not know the reality of the meaning of that, nor what is intended thereby, though we believe of Allah Most High that

“there is nothing whatsoever like unto Him (Quran 42:11)”

And that He is above indwelling in created things (hulul), or having the characteristics of temporal, contingent existence (huduth). And this is the path of the Early Muslims or the vast majority of them, and is the safest, for a person is not required to enter into discussions about this. When one believes in Allah’s transcendence above created things, there is no need for debate on it, or taking risks over what there is neither pressing necessity nor even any real call for.
But if the need arises for definitive interpretations to refute someone making unlawful innovations and the like, then the learned may supply them, and this is how we should understand what has come down to us from scholars in this field. And Allah knows best. (Al Majmu- Nawawi)

To summarize and highlight some important key points.

There are two approaches toward the unclear verses and hadith pertaining to Allah’s Attributes

1. Tafwid, saying, “such verses should not be given a definitive interpretation, but rather their meaning should not be discussed, and the knowledge of them should be cosigned to Allah Most (tafwid), while at the same time believing in the transcendence of Allah Most High, and that the characteristics of created things do not apply to Him (Allah).”

“And this is the path of the Early Muslims (Salafus Saleh) or the vast majority of them, and is the safest, for a person is not required to enter into discussions about this.” Imam Nawawi is saying that it is the path of the vast majority of them, indicates, that a small group of Salaf engaged in tawil, the second approach.

The Basis for Tafwid in the Quran

Quran 3:7 can be read two different ways.

(1) Proof for Tafwid: “He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: “We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:” and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding. “(Qur’an, surah 3 verse 7)

Ibn Masud read it this way. ((Suyuti- Itqan v.2, p. 4)

This position of tafwid is reinforced with the Quranic verse, Say: The things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are….and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge. (7:33)

In essense, the knowledge of Allah can only come from two sources, the Quran and Sunnah, since Allah and His Messenger did not explain the meaning of the Hand of Allah, neither explaining that it should be taken upon it’s apparent (literally) meaning (ala Dhahiri) nor explaining it to meaning, power (qudra) or favor (nima) it is best to remain silent. This is why Imam Shafi said, “I believe in what comes from Allah in the meaning meant by the Messenger of Allah,.” (Ibn Qudamah in Lam’at al Itiqad)

Tafwid is to believe in the wording of the Quran and hadith when related to the unclear verses and hadiths pertaining to Allah and that it is true and from Allah, but to remain silent concerning its meaning and its howness as Allah and His Messenger did not delve into it.

2. Tawil. Saying, “Some say that they should be figuratively interpreted as befits them (ie interpreting His hand for example, as an allusion to His omnipotence). And this is more well known of the two positions of the scholastic theologians.” (Meaning more well known among the scholars of the khalaf – later generation)
When is tawil done?
Imam Nawawi says, “But if the need arises for definitive interpretations to refute someone making unlawful innovations and the like, then the learned may supply them, and this is how we should understand what has come down to us from scholars in this field.”

The point is that tawil is done, when innovation exist, and it is the only way to keep the common people save from such innovation. And the reason it is done this way is because, this is when the Salafus Saleh (Early Muslims), usually engaged in tawil. Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani said, “al-Bayhaqi and others have narrated from the four imams, from the two Sufyan, the two Hammad, al-Awza’i, from al-Layth and others, that they DID interpret this text (make tawil) according to what befits Allah, and what is in use in the language of the Arabs.” (1)

Imam Ali Qari said, “The Salaf and Khalaf agree over tawil. The difference between them is only in terminology (al Khilafu baynahuma) as they have Consensus (ijma) over the fact that the outward terms must not be taken literally (sarf al lafzi min zahirih). However, the tawi of the Salaf is general (ijmali) as they practiced resignation (tafwid- consigning or remaining silent) to Allah Most High of the intended meaning of the wording, which is not taken literally as Allah is beyond that. As for the Khalaf, their tawil is specific (tafsili) because they were forced to recur to it due to the abundance of innovators. They did not intend, in so doing to diverge from the pious Salaf – Allah is our refuge from such a thought. It is only that necessity demanded it, in their time, due to the many anthropomorphists (mujassima_, Jahmiyya, and others of the people of misguidance, lest they prevail over the minds of the general public. They intended thereby the deterrence and routing of their arguments. This is why many of them apologized and said, “if only our times had the same purity of faith as that of the Salaf!” So what is obligatory upon us is what we mentioned regarding belief, together with negation of resemblance. And if it is feared for laypersons that they do not understand istiwa – short of saying it means istila (dominion) – except in the sense of contact 9ittisal) and the like among the requirements of corporeal requirements, then there is no harm in reorienting their understanding to meaning of istila in strict avoidance of what is forbidden, and in saying “istiwa means istila.” (Al Qari- Miraq al Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al Masabih)

Examples of Tawil among the Salafus Saleh:

Ibn Abbas and the Companions of the Prophet, sallahu alayhi wa salam:

Concerning the verse, “The day that a Shin will be laid bare,” (Quran 68:42) Ibn Abbas interpreted the “shin” to mean “severity.”

Commenting on this verse, Imam al Tabari said, “A group of the Prophet’s companions and their disciples, and the people of figurative interpretation have said, ‘He will uncover a severe matter.’ And among those who interpreted the shin to mean ‘severity’ from the Imams of Quranic exegesis are Mujahid, Said Bin Jubayr, Qataba and others. Allah be He exalted said, ‘And the sky we built with hands. And it is We who give expanse.’ (Quran 51:47). Ibn Abbas said concerning it: “With strength.” (Tafsir al Tabari) That is, “We built it with strength.”

Imam Ahmad

Concerning the verse, “Do they but wait until Allah comes to them in the canopies of the clouds?” (Quran 2:210)
Qadi Abu Yala mentioned that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal commented on this passage saying that, “The meaning of it is , ‘His power and command.’ (Ibn Jawzi, Daf Shubah al Tashbih)

Imam Bukhari

Imam al Bayhaqi reports that Imam Al Bukhari said concerning the hadith, “Allah laughs at two men, one of them kills the other and both of them enter Paradise,” that laughing means, “mercy.” (Bahaqi Al Asma wa al Sifat) That is, “Allah shows mercy to both of them.”

Sufyan al Thawri

Sufyan al Thawri said concerning Allah’s saying, “And He is with you where ever you are” (Quran 57:4) “It means with His knowledge.” (Tashih al Mahafim al Aqadiyya)

The Basis for Tawil in the Quran

Quran 3:7 can be read two different ways.

(1) Proof for Tafwid: “He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: “We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:” and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding. “(Qur’an, surah 3 verse 7)

Ibn Masud read it this way. ((Suyuti- Itqan v.2, p. 4)

(2). Proof for Tawil: “He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah and those who are firmly grounded in knowledge. Say: “We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:” and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding.”(Qur’an,surah 3 verse 7)

Ibn Abbas said, “I am of those well grounded in knowledge, who know the meaning (of the allegorical verses).” (Suyuti- Itqan v.2, p. 4)

Ibn Taymiyyah says, “This reading has been reported from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Muhammad Ibn Ijma Ibn Az Zubayr, Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Qutybah and others. To me this and the other reading are both correct… Both readings have been reported from ibn Abbas and both are correct.” (Ibn Taymiyyah al Majmoo Al Fatawa)

Proof from Hadith

The Prophet, sallahu alayhi wa salam said, “May Allah make radiant someone who hears something from us, and then conveys it as he heard it (Quran and Hadith), for it might be that someone who it is conveyed to understands better than the one who heard (it first). (Sahih-Tirmidhi)

This hadith illustrates, that the later generations may have a better understanding of something the early generation did not.

And Allah knows best.

(1) Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, while explaining one of the versions of the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, sometimes referred to as hadith an-Nuzul (and which would give the impression that Allah descends on Earth every night, in his book Fath al-Bari, volume 3, page 23, illustrates all these points, mentioned by Imam Nawawi.. Imam Ibn Hajar al Asqanlani said, “As for his saying ‘Yanzilu Rabbuna ‘ila s-Samaa’i d-Dunya“, those who confirm a direction to Allah, have relied on this text and said that it is the direction of ‘above’ (al-uluww), and this has been refuted by the scholars (al-jumhur), because talking like that equals limiting Allaah, who is exempted from that. Thereafter people have diverged about the meaning of an-nuzul: some took it according to its literal meaning and verily, these are the anthropomorphists (al-mushabbihah) , and Allaah is absolutely free (exempted) from what they say. Others have resorted to deny the truthfulness of all the hadiths which have been narrated in that regard: those are the Khawaarij and the Mu’tazilah, and these are really astonishing because on the one hand they interpret what has reached [us] in the Qur’an which is similar to this, and on the other hand they deny what has come from hadith, either due to ignorance, or to stubbornness. Others have read those texts as they were revealed, believing in them in general, while freeing Allaah from the manner [kayfiyyah] of the anthropomorphists, and these are the majority of the Salaf. [On top of that], al-Bayhaqi and others have narrated from the four imams, from the two Sufyan, the two Hammad, al-Awza’i, from al-Layth and others, that they DID interpret this text according to what befits Allaah, and what is in use in the language of the Arabs. Some other ones went so far in their interpretation that it ended up being a type of distortion. Others [still] made a difference between what is a ‘close’ interpretation’, i.e. in use in the language of the Arabs, and what would be a ‘far-fetched’ one, and as a result they have interpreted in some cases and made tafweed [i.e. leaving the meaning to Allaah] in some cases, and this has been narrated from imam Malik. It has been confirmed by Ibn Daqiq al-Id that al-Bayhaqi said that the safest [of all these methods] is to believe in those texts without a how (bila kayf) and to not speak about what is intended.”

Abu Hanifa & Tawassul

Abu Hanifa & Tawassul
by Shaykh Gibril Haddad

Imam Abu Hanifa: His Supposed Objection to Tawassul (Using Intermediaries)

Imàm Abu Hanïfa nowhere objected to tawassul but only – as narrated from Abu Yosuf in Kitàb al-Àthàr–to the use of a specific wording in supplication, namely, “by the right You owe to So-and-so” (bi-haqqi fulàni ‘alayk), or “by the joints of power and glory in Your Throne” (bima ‘àqidal-‘izzmin‘arshik).[1] The reason for this is that, on the one hand, Allàh owes no-one any right whatso­ever except what He Himself conde­scends to state on His part as in the verse [To help believers is incumbent upon Us (haqqun ‘alaynà)](30:47). On the other hand, “by the right owed so-and-so” is an oath and is therefore a formula restricted to Allàh Himself on pains of shirk. Imàm Abu Hanïfa said: “Let one not swear any oath except by Allàh alone, with a pure affirmation of tawhïd and sincerity.”[2] A third reason is that the expression “the joints of power and glory in Your Throne” is a lone-narrator (àhàd) report and is therefore not retained nor put into practice, in accordance with the rule for any such reports that might suggest anthropomorphism.

Those that claim[3] that the Imàm objected to tawassul altogether are unable to adduce any­thing to sup­port such a claim other than the above caveat, which is not against tawassul but against a specific, prohibitive wor­ding in tawassul. A proof of this is that it is permissi­ble in the Hanafï School to say “by the sanctity/honor of so-and-so in Your presence” (bi-hurmati/bi-jàhi fulàn). This is stated in the Fatàwà Bazzàziyya (6:351 in the margin of the Fatàwà Hindiyya) and is also the position of Abþ al-Layth al-Samarqandï among the major Hanafï Jurists, not to mention that of Imàm Ibn ‘Àbidïn among the later ones.

Even so there is authentic evidence in[1]the hadïth of Fàtima bint Asad, [2] the hadïth of “the right of those who ask You,”[3] the hadïth: “O Allàh, I ask you by the joints of power in the Throne,” and [4] the hadïth: “Do you know the right owed to Allàh by His slaves and the right owed by Allàh to his slaves?”[4] to support the permissibility of such a wording. If the above objection is authentically reported from Abu Hanïfa then either he did not deem these hadïths authentic by his standards, or they did not reach him. An illustration of this is that Abu Yusuf permitted the formula “By the joints of power…”. [5] Further, the oppo­site is also reported from him, namely, that he per­mitted tawassul using those very expressions. Ibn ‘Àbidïn said: “In the Tatàrkhàniyya: The Àthàr also report what shows permissibility.” Then he cites–from al-Qàrï’s Sharh al-Niqàya, al-Munàwï quoting Ibn ‘Abd al-Salàm (cf. the very first of his Fatàwà in the printed Risàla edition), and al-Subkï – fur­ther explanations that it is permitted, then he cites the fatwa by Ibn Amïr al-Hajj in the thir­teenth chapter of Sharh al-Munya that such permissibility is not limited to tawassul through the Prophet e. i.e. it extends to the Sàlihïn.

[1] Cf. al-Zabïdï, It hàf (2:285) and Ibn Abï al-‘Izz, Sharhal-‘Aqïda al-Tahàwiyya (1988 9th ed. p. 237).

[2]Cf. al-Kasànï, Badà’i‘ al-Sanà’i‘ (3:8).

[3]Cf. Ibn Taymiyya, Majmþ‘ al-Fatàwà (1:202-203) and his imitators.

[4]The first hadïth is narrated from Anas by al-Tabarànï in al-Kabïr (24:351) and al-Awsat. (1:152) and Abu Nu‘aym in his Hilya (1985 ed. 3:121) with a chain contain­ing Rawh ibn Salàh concerning whom there is difference of opinion among the authorities. He is unknown according to Ibn al-Jawzï in al-‘Ilal al-Mutanàhiya (1:260-270), Ibn ‘Adï in al-Kàmil (3:146 #667), and al-Dàraqutnï in al-Mu’talif wal-Mukhtalif (3:1377); Ibn Màkþlà in al-Ikmàl (5:15) declared him weak while al-Hàkim asserted was trustwor­thy and highly dependable (thiqa ma’mun) – as men­tioned by Ibn Hajar in Lisàn al-Mïzàn (2:465 #1876), Ibn Hibbàn in­cluded him in al-Thiqàt (8:244), and al-Fasawï considered him trustworthy (cf. Mamdoh, Raf‘ [p. 148]). Al-Haythamï (9:257) said: “Al-Tabarànï narrated it in al-Kabïr and al-Awsat and its chain contains Rawh ibn Salàh whom Ibn Hibbàn and al-Hàkim declared trustworthy although there is some weakness in him, and the rest of its sub-narrators are the men of sound hadïth.” I was unable to find Abu Hàtim’s declaration of Rawh as trustworthy re­ported by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Alawï in his Mafàhïm (10th ed. p. 145 n. 1). Nor does Shaykh Mahmod Mamdohin his discussion of this hadïth in Raf‘ al-Minàra (p. 147-155) mention such a grading on the part of Abu Hàtim although he con­sid­ers Rawh “truthful” (sadaq) and not “weak” (da‘ïf), according to the rules of hadïth science when no reason is given with regard to a nar­rator’s purported discreditation (jarhmubham ghayr mufassar). Mamdoh(p. 149-150) noted that al­though Albànï in his Silsila Da‘ïfa (1:32-33) claims it is a case of explicated discreditation (jarh mufassar) yet he himself de­clares identi­cally-formulated dis­creditation cases as unexplicated and therefore unaccept­able in two dif­ferent contexts! Ibn ‘Alawï adds that the hadïth is also narrated from Ibn ‘Abbàs by Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr – without specifying where – and from Jàbir by Ibn Abï Shayba, but without the du‘à. Imàm al-Kawtharï said of this hadïth in his Maqàlàt (p. 410): “It provides textual evidence whereby there is no difference between the living and the dead in the context of using a means (tawassul), and this is explicit tawassul through the Proph­ets, while the hadïth of the Prophet from Abu Sa‘ïd al-Khudrï ‘O Allàh, I ask You by the right of [the promise made to] those who ask You (bihaqqi al-sà’ilïna ‘alayk)’* constitutes tawassul through the generality of Muslims, both the living and the dead.”

*A hasan hadïth of the Prophet according to Shaykh Mahmod Mamdoh who showed in his mono­graph Mubàhathat al-Sà’irïn bi Hadïth Allàhumma Innï As’aluka bi-Haqqi al-Sà’ilïn, narrated from Abu Sa‘ïd al-Khudrï by Ahmad in his Musnad with a fair chain according to Hamza al-Zayn (10:68 #11099) – a weak chain according to al-Arna’þt(17:247-248 #11156) who considers it, like Abu Hàtim in al-‘Ilal (2:184), more like­ly a mawquf saying of Abu Sa‘ïd himself; Ibn Màjah with a chain he declared weak, Ibn al-Sunni in ‘Amal al-Yawm wa al-Layla (p. 40 #83-84), al-Bayhaqï in al-Da‘awàt al-Kabïr (p. 47= 1:47 #65), Ibn Khuzayma in al-Tawhïd (p. 17-18) [and his Sahïh (2:458?) as indicated by al-Busïrï in his Zawà’id (1:98-99)], al-Tabarànï in al-Du‘a (p. 149=2:990), Ibn Ja‘d in his Musnad (p. 299), al-Baghawï in al-Ja‘diyyat (#2118-2119) and – mawquf – by Ibn Abï Shayba (6:25=10:211-212) and Ibn Abï Hàtim in ‘Ilal al-Hadïth (2:184). Al-‘Iràqï in Takhrïj Ahàdïth al- Ihyà’ (1:291) graded it hasan as a marfu‘ Prophetic hadïth, as did the hadïth Masters al-Dimyàtï in al-Muttajir al-Ràbihfï Thawàb al-‘Amal al-Sàlih (p. 471-472), Ibn Hajar in Amàlï al-Adhkàr (1:272) and al-Mundhirï’s shaykh the hadïth Master Abu al-Hasan al-Maqdisï in al-Targhïb (1994 ed. 2:367 #2422=1997 ed. 2:304-305) and as indicated by Ibn Qudàma in al-Mughnï (1985 Dàr al-Fikr ed. 1:271). Shaykh Mamdohin his monograph refuted the reasoning of Nàsir Albànï and Hammàd al-Ansàrï in declaring this hadïth weak. The third hadïth is narrated from [1] the Companion Qayla bint Makhrama by al-Tabarànï in al-Kabïr (25:12) with a fair chain according to al-Haythamï (10:124-125); [2] Ibn Mas‘ud by al-Bayhaqï in al-Da‘awàt al-Kabïr (2:157 #392) – Ibn al-Jawzï in al-Mawdu‘àt (2:142) claimed that it was forged as cited by al-Zayla‘ï in Nasb al-Ràya (4:272-273) but this ruling was rejected by al-Suyutï in al-La’àli’ (2:68); [3] maqtþ‘ from Wuhayb by Abu Nu‘aym in the Hilya (1985 ed. 8:158-159); [4] Abþ Hurayra by Ibn ‘Asàkir with a very weak chain cf. Ibn ‘Arràq, Tanzïh al-Sharï‘a (1:228); and [5] Abþ Bakr in al-Tadwïn and al-Firdaws. The fourth is narrated from Mu‘àdh in the Six Books and Ahmad except for al-Nasà’ï.

[5]Cf. al-Kàsànï, Badà’i‘ al-Sanà’i‘ (5:126).

[6]Ibn ‘Àbidïn, Hàshiya (6:396-397).

Seeking Aid with the Prophet
by
Shaykh al Islam Ibn Hajar al*Haytamī

Tawassul

From amongst the untruths of Ibn Taymiyya which no scholar before him had*said, and*whereby he created*dissent between the people of Islām, is that he denounced tawassul and istighātha (seeking aid) through him ; and*that is not as he (Ibn Taymiyyah) had*decreed* (i.e. that it is impermissible). Rather, tawassul through him is hasan (good) in every state: before his creation and*after his creation, in the dunya and*in the ākhira. That which proves seeking tawassul through him before his creation and*that it is the path taken by the pious predecessors, the Prophets, the Awliyā and*others (and thus the view of Ibn Taymiyya has no basis [and*is] from his concoctions) is: that which al* Hākim transmitted*and*declared*sahīh that he said:

“When Ādam committed his mistake he said: O my Lord, I am asking you to forgive me for the sake of Muhammad. Allāh said: O Ādam, and how do you know about Muhammad whom I have not yet created? Ādam replied, O my Lord, after You created me with your hand and breathed into me of Your Spirit, I raised my head and saw written on the heights of the Throne: lā ilāha illallāh muhammadun rasūlallāh. I understood that You would not place next to Your Name but the Most Beloved One of Your creation. Allāh said: O Ādam, I have forgiven you, and were it not for Muhammad I would not have created you.”

The meaning of ‘for his sake’ (bi*haqqihi) is his rank and*station in His sight Most High, or the right (haqq) that Allāh made for him over creation, or the right which Allāh Most High made obligatory on Himself over him by His grace as in a sahīh Hadīth,

“He said: what is the right (haqq) of the servants over Allāh?”

not [that it is] incumbent (wājib) [upon Allāh] since nothing is incumbent upon Him.
Furthermore, asking by him is not actually asking him such that it may be considered*associating [partners with Allāh]. It is truly but asking Allāh Most High through one who has a high estimation, an elevated rank and*a great distinction with Him. From amongst his miracles from his Lord*is that He does not fail one asking

through him, and*seeking intermediary to Him through his rank. It suffices as humiliation for one who denies this that he is deprived*of this [blessing].
[That which proves seeking tawassul through him] during his lifetime is that which was transmitted*by al*Nasā’ī and*al*Tirmidhī who declared*it sahīh that:

“An afflicted man approached the Prophet and said, ‘supplicate to Allāh on my behalf that He cures me’. He said, ‘if you wish, I will supplicate (to Allāh on your behalf) and if you wish you can remain patient and that is better for you.’ He said, ‘supplicate to Him.’”

And*in (another) narration (he said):

“’I have no guide and it is difficult for me’, so he (the Prophet) instructed him to perform wudū and perfect his wudū and supplicate with this supplication: ‘Oh Allāh, I ask You and turn to You through my Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet of Mercy; O Muhammad, I seek your intercession with my for my need, that it may be fulfilled. O Allāh! grant him intercession for me.’”

Al*Bayhaqī also declared*it sahīh and*added,

“he stood and was able to see”.

And, in [another] narration,

“O Allāh! Grant him intercession for me and grant me intercession for myself”

The Prophet knew that but did*not supplicate for him because he desired*to achieve from him concentration and the toil of poverty, brokenness and*desperation, seeking istighātha through him , so as to attain for him the perfection of his objective. And*such an implication is attainable in his life and*after his death; and*therefore the Salaf have used*this supplication in their needs after his death. `Uthmān ibn Hunayf taught it to a Sahābī…*al*Tabarānī and al*Bayhaqī narrated it and*at*Tabarānī narrated*with a jayyid (good) chain that,

“He mentioned in his supplication ‘for the sake of Your Prophet and the Prophets before me.’”

There is no difference between the mention of tawassul, istighātha, tashaffu` and*tawajjuh (directing/turning) through him or through others of the Prophets and likewise the Awliyā. This is because the permissibility of tawassul with actions as in the sahīh Hadīth of the cave has been mentioned*despite them (the actions) being transitory; therefore pious souls are more preferable, and*(also) because `Umar ibn al*Khattāb sought tawassul through al*`Abbās for seeking rain and*(al*`Abbās) did*not repudiate this. It is as though the wisdom of his tawassul through him and*not the Prophet and*his grave was to display humility on his behalf, and*elevation of his relatives, and*thus in his tawassul through al*`Abbās he is performing tawassul through the Prophet and*more.

It is not to be said*that the expressions tawajjuh and*istighātha presuppose that the one by whom aid*is sought (al*mustaghath bihi) is higher than the one whose aid*is sought
(mustaghāth ilayhi). That is because tawajjuh comes from [the word] jāh which is a high status. Tawassul could be sought from a possessor of rank unto one who possesses a higher rank than him.

Istighatha

Istighātha is seeking aid, and the one seeking aid is seeking from the one from whom aid is sought in order to obtain aid from other than him, even if that other is greater than him. So tawajjuh and istighāthah with him and others than him does not have a meaning in the heart of the Muslims other than that and they do not intend by these two matters (i.e tawajjuh and istighātha) anyone besides Him . So, whoever’s breast is not opened with this, then let him cry over himself. We ask Allāh for well being. The one in whom aid is sought in reality is Allāh the Exalted, and the Prophet is an intermediary between Him and the one seeking aid. So aid is sought from Him, the Exalted, and the aid comes from Him both in creating and bringing fourth. The Prophet is the one whose aid*is sought and aid is from him by way of intermediary means and*kasb (acquisition) and aid is sought from him metaphorically.

So in general, using the term istighātha in an unrestricted sense for the one from whom aid is obtained, even if only by way of intermediary means and kasb, is something well known and*there is no doubt regarding it; not in the language, or in the Sacred*Law. Therefore, there is no difference between it and*asking, especially in light of the narration that has been mentioned*in al*Bukhārī concerning the intercession on the day of judgement:

“As they were in that state, they sought aid (istaghāthū) from Ādam , then Mūsa , then Muhammad ”

Tawassul could also mean seeking supplication from him for indeed*he is living and knowing the question of the one who asks him. It has been authentically reported from a long Hadīth:

The people suffered a drought during the successorship of `Umar ,
whereupon a man came to the grave of the Prophet and said:“O Messenger of Allāh, ask for rain for your Community, for verily they have but perished,” after which the Prophet appeared to him in a dream and told him that the rain shall come. And in it also it appears: “Go to `Umar and give him my greeting, then tell him that they will be watered. Tell him: You must be clever, you must be clever!”
(2)

Meaning, gentleness, because he was severe in the religion of Allāh.

So he came to him and informed him, after which he cried and then said: “O my Lord, I spare no effort except in what escapes my power!”

In another narration it states that the one who saw the dream was Bilāl ibn Hārith al Muzanī, the companion .

And Allah knows best.

1 Ibn Hājar al*Haytamī, al*jawhar al*munazzam; as cited by al*Qādi Yūsuf al*Nabhānī in shawāhid al*haqq fīl*istighātha bī*sayyid al*khalq (The Proofs of Truth in the Seeking of Aid with the Master of Creation )

2. The people were gripped by famine during the tenure of ‘Umar (bin al-Khattāb). Then a Companion walked up to the Prophet’s grave and said, “O Messenger of Allah, please ask for rain from Allah for your Community who is in dire straits.” Then the Companion saw the Prophet Sall Allahu Alayhi Wasallam in a dream. The Prophet Sall Allahu Alayhi Wasallam said to him, “Go over to ‘Umar, give him my regards and tell him that the rain will come to you. And tell ‘Umar that he should be on his toes, he should be on his toes, (he should remain alert).” Then the Companion went over to see ‘Umar and passed on to him the tidings. On hearing this, ‘Umar broke into a spurt of crying. He said, “O Allah, I exert myself to the full until I am completely exhausted.” ( Related by Ibn Abū Shaybah in al-Musannaf (12:31-2#12051); Bayhaqī, Dalā’il-un-nubuwwah (7:47); Ibn ‘Abd-ul-Barr, al- Istī‘āb fī ma‘rifat-il-ashāb (2:464); Subkī, Shifā’-us-siqām fī ziyārat khayr-il-anām (p.130); ‘Alā’-ud-Dīn ‘Alī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (8:431#23535); and Abū Ya‘lā Khalīl bin ‘Abdullāh Khalīlī Qazwīnī in Kitāb-ul-irshād fī ma‘rifat ‘ulamā’-il-hadith (1:313-4), as quoted by Mahmūd Sa‘īd Mamdūh in Raf‘-ul-minārah (p.262). Ibn Taymiyyah has endorsed its authenticity in his book Iqtidā’-us-sirāt-il-mustaqīm mukhālifat ashāb-il-jahīm (p.373). Ibn Kathīr has confirmed the soundness of its transmission in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:167). Ibn Abū Khaythamah narrated it with the same chain of transmission as quoted by Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalānī in al-Isābah fī tamyīz-is-sahābah (3:484), while the latter writes in Fath-ul-bārī (2:495-6): “Ibn Abū Shaybah transmitted it with a sound (Sahih) chain of transmission and Sayf bin ‘Umar Tamīmī has recorded it in al-Futūh-ul-kabīr that the dreamer was a Companion known as Bilāl bin Hārith Muzanī.” Qastallānī has remarked in al-Mawāhib-ulladuniyyah (4:276) that Ibn Abū Shaybah has narrated it with a sound chain of transmission while Zurqānī has supported Qastallānī in his Commentary (11:150-1))

https://hornofsatan.wordpress.com/answering-the-four-principles/

http://salafiaqeedah.blogspot.co.uk/2015/02/the-ruling-of-seeking-aid-with-prophet_21.html

 

 

Rejecting he who presents a hadith is not rejecting the Prophet but their so-called, “correction,” and understanding of that hadith.

In Bukhari and Muslim from Ibn `Umar: On the day of the battle of al-Ahzab (the battle of the Trench) the Prophet said (to a travelling party): “Let none of you pray the `Asr prayer [in Muslim also: the Zuhr prayer] except after reaching the Banu Qurayza.” The `Asr prayer became due for some of them on the way. Some of those said: “We will not offer it till we reach the Banu Qurayza,” while others said: “Rather, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet did not mean that for us.” Later on it was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not take to task any of the two groups.”

This is a proof that there is more than one way to understand a hadith.

So when Imam Shafi said, “If the hadith is Sahih (rigorously authenticated), then it is my position (madhab).” He doesn’t necessarily mean your understanding of it. So it is not fanaticism (ta’assub) when I reject your presentation of hadith, I am merely preferring the scholarly understanding of that hadith over yours.

I love this hadith.

The Prophet said, “Let none of you pray the `Asr prayer except after reaching the Banu Qurayza.”

Look at what follows, it’s like watching a debate between the Salafis and Sufis.

Some of those said: “We will not offer it till we reach the Banu Qurayza,” while others said: “Rather, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet did not mean that for us.”

The Salafis would say, “We will not offer it till we reach the Banu Qurayza,” (This is the obvious methodology of the Salafi Minhaj) (And it appears to be the most obvious meaning of the Prophet’s statement)

The Sufis would say, “Rather, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet did not mean that for us.” (This is the obvious methodology of the Sufis and those who follow a madhab)(This understanding takes into account other injunctions of the Quran and Sunnah as well as looking into the wisdom of the Prophet )

This hadith is such a breath of fresh air.

And Allah knows best.

Is Allah everywhere?

No, Allah is not everywhere. Allah does not indwell in His creation, nor does His creation indwell in Him.

Allah is closer to me than my jugular vein (1), Where ever I turn there is His face (2), He is with me wherever I am (3), and He is established on the throne (4), All in a manner that befits His Majesty.
While at the same time, there is nothing above Him, nor below Him, as the Prophet said in a dua to Allah, ” “… You are the Outwardly Manifest (dhahir) so there is nothing above You, and You are the Inwardly Hidden (batin) so there is nothing below You.” (Sahih Muslim)

(1) We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein (50:16)
(2) So wherever you [might] turn, there is the Face of Allah. (2:115)
(3) He is with you wherever you are. (57:4)
(4) The Merciful established Himself over the Throne. (20:5)

And Allah knows best.

Imam al-Habib Abdallah bin ‘Alawi al-Haddad,(r), said,

If you look with a sound understanding into the those passages relating to the Faith (Aqidah) in the Book and Sunnah and the saying of the virtuous predecessors(Salafus Saleh), whether they be companions or folllowers, you will know for certain that the truth is with the party called the Ashari, named after Shaykh Abu’l Hasan Al Ashari, may Allah have Mercy on him, who systematized the foundations of the creed of the people of truth (Ahlul Haqq), and recorded its earlier version, these being the belief which the Companions and the best among the Followers agreed upon. (the Book of Assistance)

AQIDA (THE CREED) OF IMAM AL-HADDAD

Translation by:
Dr. Mostafa al-Badawi

Imam Abdullah al-Haddad said (may Allah bring us benefit from him):

“Praise belongs to Allah alone. May Allah bless our master Muhammad, and his Family, and Companions, and grant them peace. We know, assent, believe, confess with certainty, and testify, that there is no god but Allah, Alone without partner. He is a Mighty God, a Great King. There is no lord beside Him, and we worship none than He. He is Ancient and Pre-Existent, Eternal and Everlasting. His firstness has no beginning, neither has His lastness any end. He is Solitary, Self-Subsistent, neither begetting nor begotten, matchless, without partner or peer. There is nothing that resembles Him, and He is the Hearer, the Seer. [42:11]

“And we confess that His holiness (Exalted in He!) renders Him beyond time and space, beyond resembling anything in existence, so that He cannot be encompassed by directions, nor be subject to contingent events. And that He is Stablished on His Throne in the manner which He has described, and in the sense which He has intended, in a Stablishment befitting the might of His Majesty, and the exaltation of His glory and magnificence. And that He (Exalted is He!) is Near to everything in existence, being closer to man than his jugular vein. [50:16] He is Watchful and Seeing over all things. He is the Living, the Self-Subsistent, slumber overtakes Him not, nor sleep; [2:255] He is the Originator of the heavens and earth; when He decrees a thing He only says to it Be! And it is. [2:117] Allah is Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over everything. [39:62]

“And that He (Exalted is He!) is over all things Powerful, and of all things Knower; His knowledge is all-embracing and He keeps count of all things. Not an atom’s weight in the earth or in the sky escapes your Lord. [10:61] He knows what goes down into the earth and that which comes forth from it, and what descends from heaven and what ascends into it. He is with you wherever you may be, and Allah is Seer of what you do. [57:4] He knows the secret thought, and what is even more concealed. [20:7] He knows what is in the land and the sea. A leaf cannot fall but that He knows it, nor is there a grain amid the darkness of the earth, nor a wet or dry thing, but that it is recorded in a clear Book. [6:59]

“And that He (Exalted is He!) wills existent things, and directs events. And that nothing may exist, whether good or evil, beneficial or harmful, except by His decree and will. Whatever He wills is, whatever He does not, is not. Should all creatures unite to move or halt a single atom in the universe, in the absence of His will, they would be unable to do so.

“And that He (Exalted is He!) is Hearer, Seer, Speaker of a Speech that is pre-existent and does not resemble the speech of creatures. And that the Mighty Qur’an is His ancient speech, His Book which He sent down upon His Messenger and Prophet Muhammad (may He bless him and grant him peace).

“And that He (Glorious is He!) is Creator of all things and their Provider, Who disposes them as He wills; neither rival nor opponent is there in His realm. He gives to whomsoever He wills and withholds from whomsoever He wills. He is not questioned about His actions, rather they are questioned. [21:23]

“And that He (Exalted is He!) is Wise in His acts, Just in His decrees, so that no injustice or tyranny can be imaginable on His part, and that no one has any rights over Him. Should He (Glorious is He!) destroy all His creatures in the blink of an eye, He would be neither unjust or tyrannous to them, for they are His dominion and His slaves. He has the right to do as He pleases in His dominion, and your Lord is not a tyrant to His slaves. [41:46] He rewards His slaves for obeying Him out of grace and generosity, and punishes them when they rebel out of His wisdom and justice.

“And that to obey Him is an obligation binding upon His bondsmen, as was made clear through the speech of His messengers (upon them be peace). We believe in every Book sent down by Allah, and in all of His messengers, His angels, and in destiny, whether good or bad.

“And we testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, whom He sent to jinn and to mankind, to the Arabs and the non-Arabs, with guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion, though the polytheists be averse. [9:33] And that he delivered the Message, was faithful to his trust, advised the Nation, did away with grief, and strove for God’s sake as is His due, being truthful and trustworthy, supported by authentic proofs and normbreaking miracles. And that Allah has made it incumbent upon His bondsmen to believe , obey, and follow him, and that a man’s faith is not acceptable – even should he believe in Him – until he believes in Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his Family and grant them peace) and in everything that he brought and informed us of, whether of the affairs of this world or the next. This includes faith in the questioning of the dead by Munkar and Nakir about religion, tawhid and Prophethood, and in the bliss which is in the grave for those who were obedient, and the torment which it contains for the rebellions.

“And that one should believe in the Resurrection after Death, the gathering of bodies and spirits to stand in the presence of Allah the Exalted, and in the Reckoning; and that His slaves will be at that time in different states, some being called to account, some being exempted, while others shall enter the Garden without reckoning. One should believe in the Scales in which good and evil deeds will be weighed; and in the Sirat, which is a bridge stretched over the depths of Hell; and in the Pool [hawd] of our Prophet Muhammad, (may Allah bless him and his Family, and grant them peace), the water of which is from the Garden, and from which the believers shall drink before entering the Garden. And in the Intercession of the Prophets, followed by the Truthful Saints [siddiqun], and then the ulema, the virtuous [salihun] and the other believers. And that the Greatest Intercession is the prerogative of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and his Family, and grant them peace). And that the people of tawhid who have entered the Fire shall be taken out of it until not one person in whose heart there lies an atom’s weight of faith shall remain in it eternally. And that the people of polytheism and disbelief shall abide in the Fire eternally and for evermore, their suffering shall not be diminished; neither shall they be reprieved. [2:162] And that the believers shall abide in the Garden eternally without end, wherein no tiredness shall affect them, and from which they shall not be expelled. [15:48] And that the believers shall see their Lord with their eyes, in a way befitting His Majesty and the Holiness of His Perfection.

“And that the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and his Family, and grant them peace) were virtuous, that their status was of various ranks, and that they were just, good, and trustworthy. Is not lawful to insult or denigrate any of them. And that the rightful successor [khalifa] to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and his Family, and grant them peace) was Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, followed by ‘Umar al-Faruq, then ‘Uthman al-Shahid, then ‘Ali al-Murtada, may Allah be pleased with them and with all his other Companions, and with those who follow them with excellence until the Day of Judgement, and with us also, by Thy Mercy, O Most Merciful of the Merciful!”

Such is the rightly-guided creed, which conforms to be the Book and the Sunna. No male or female Muslim should be ignorant of it. Without affirming it one’s faith is not sound. It is not a condition that every person should be able to articulate it fluently; rather, what counts is what lies in the heart.

[Source: This Aqeeda tu’l Islam (The Muslim Creed) forms the concluding chapter of one of the classics of Muslim spirituality titled An-Nasaaih id-Diniyya wa’l Wasaya al-Imaniyyah (Sincere Religious Advices and Counsels of Faith) of Sayyidunal Imam al-Habib Abdallah bin ‘Alawi al-Haddad, Rady Allahu ‘Anhu. His blessed descendant, Sayyidunal Imam al-Habib Ahmad Mash-hur al-Haddad Rady Allahu ‘Anhu included it as chapter 17 in his well-known classic Miftahul Jannah (The Key To The Garden). The translation provided here is by Dr. Mostafa al-Badawi.]

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 62 other followers